Table of Contents
ZOOM is an acronym for 'Z39.50 Object-Orientation Model' and is an initiative started by Mike Taylor (Mike is from the UK, which explains the peculiar name of the model). The goal of ZOOM is to provide a common Z39.50 client API not bound to a particular programming language or toolkit.
From YAZ version 2.1.12, SRU is supported.
You can make SRU ZOOM connections by specifying scheme
http:// for the hostname for a connection.
The dialect of SRU used is specified by the value of the
sru option, which may be SRU over
HTTP GET (
SRU over HTTP POST (
post), (SRU over
(Solr Web Service).
Using the facility for embedding options in target strings, a
connection can be forced to use SRU rather the SRW (the default) by
prefixing the target string with
sru=get,, like this:
Solr protocol support was added to YAZ in version 4.1.0, as a dialect of a SRU protocol, since both are HTTP based protocols.
The lack of a simple Z39.50 client API for YAZ has become more and more apparent over time. So when the first ZOOM specification became available, an implementation for YAZ was quickly developed. For the first time, it is now as easy (or easier!) to develop clients as it is to develop servers with YAZ. This chapter describes the ZOOM C binding. Before going further, please reconsider whether C is the right programming language for the job. There are other language bindings available for YAZ, and still more are in active development. See the ZOOM web-site for more information.
In order to fully understand this chapter you should read and
try the example programs
zoomtst2.c, .. in the
The C language misses features found in object oriented languages
such as C++, Java, etc. For example, you'll have to manually,
destroy all objects you create, even though you may think of them as
temporary. Most objects have a
_create - and a
All objects are in fact pointers to internal stuff, but you don't see
that because of typedefs. All destroy methods should gracefully ignore a
In each of the sections below you'll find a sub section called protocol behavior, that describes how the API maps to the Z39.50 protocol.
The Connection object is a session with a target.
#include <yaz/zoom.h> ZOOM_connection ZOOM_connection_new(const char *host, int portnum); ZOOM_connection ZOOM_connection_create(ZOOM_options options); void ZOOM_connection_connect(ZOOM_connection c, const char *host, int portnum); void ZOOM_connection_destroy(ZOOM_connection c);
Connection objects are created with either function
The former creates and automatically attempts to establish a network
connection with the target. The latter doesn't establish
a connection immediately, thus allowing you to specify options
before establishing network connection using the function
If the port number,
portnum, is zero, the
host is consulted for a port specification.
If no port is given, 210 is used. A colon denotes the beginning of
a port number in the host string. If the host string includes a
slash, the following part specifies a database for the connection.
You can prefix the host with a scheme followed by colon. The
default scheme is
tcp (Z39.50 protocol).
http selects SRU/get over HTTP by default,
but can overridden to use SRU/post, SRW, and the Solr protocol.
You can prefix the scheme-qualified host-string with one or more
sequences, each of which represents an option to be set into the
connection structure before the
protocol-level connection is forged and the initialization
handshake takes place. This facility can be used to provide
authentication credentials, as in host-strings such as:
Connection objects should be destroyed using the function
void ZOOM_connection_option_set(ZOOM_connection c, const char *key, const char *val); void ZOOM_connection_option_setl(ZOOM_connection c, const char *key, const char *val, int len); const char *ZOOM_connection_option_get(ZOOM_connection c, const char *key); const char *ZOOM_connection_option_getl(ZOOM_connection c, const char *key, int *lenp);
ZOOM_connection_option_setl allows you to
set an option given by
key to the value
value for the connection.
value is assumed to be a 0-terminated string. Function
ZOOM_connection_option_setl specifies a
value of a certain size (len).
the value for an option given by
Table 3.1. ZOOM Connection Options
|implementationName||Name of your client||none|
|user||Authentication user name||none|
|group||Authentication group name||none|
|authenticationMode||How authentication is encoded.||basic|
|host||Target host. This setting is "read-only". It's automatically set internally when connecting to a target.||none|
|proxy||Proxy host. If set, the logical host is encoded in the otherInfo area of the Z39.50 Init PDU with OID 1.2.840.10003.10.1000.81.1.||none|
|clientIP||Client IP. If set, is encoded in the otherInfo area of a Z39.50 PDU with OID 1.2.840.10003.10.1000.81.3. Holds the original IP addresses of a client. Is used if ZOOM is used in a gateway of some sort.||none|
|timeout||Idle timeout which specifies how long ZOOM will wait for network I/O before giving up. Thus, the actual waiting time might be longer than this value if the target makes a chunked response and the time between each chunk arrive is less this value. For the connect+init, this is the time ZOOM will wait until receiving first byte from Init response.||30|
|async||If true (1) the connection operates in
asynchronous operation which means that all calls are non-blocking
|maximumRecordSize||Maximum size of single record.||1 MB|
|preferredMessageSize||Maximum size of multiple records.||1 MB|
|lang||Language for negotiation.||none|
|charset||Character set for negotiation.||none|
|serverImplementationId||Implementation ID of server. (The old targetImplementationId option is also supported for the benefit of old applications.)||none|
|targetImplementationName||Implementation Name of server. (The old targetImplementationName option is also supported for the benefit of old applications.)||none|
|serverImplementationVersion||Implementation Version of server. (The old targetImplementationVersion option is also supported for the benefit of old applications.)||none|
|databaseName||One or more database names
separated by character plus (||Default|
|piggyback||True (1) if piggyback should be used in searches; false (0) if not.||1|
|smallSetUpperBound||If hits is less than or equal to this value, then target will return all records using small element set name||0|
|largeSetLowerBound||If hits is greater than this value, the target will return no records.||1|
|mediumSetPresentNumber||This value represents the number of records to be returned as part of a search when hits is less than or equal to large set lower bound and if hits is greater than small set upper bound.||0|
|smallSetElementSetName||The element set name to be used for small result sets.||none|
|mediumSetElementSetName||The element set name to be used for medium-sized result sets.||none|
|init_opt_search, init_opt_present, init_opt_delSet, etc.||After a successful Init, these options may be interrogated to discover whether the server claims to support the specified operations.||none|
SRU/Solr transport type. Must be either ||soap|
SRU/SRW version. Should be ||1.2|
|extraArgs||Extra arguments for SRU/Solr URLs. The value must be URL encoded already.|
|facets||Requested or recommended facets may be given before a search is sent. The value of this setting is described in Section 8, “Facets” For inspection of the facets returned, refer to the functions described in Section 5, “ZOOM Facets”.||none|
|apdulog||If set to a true value such as "1", a log of low-level protocol packets is emitted on standard error stream. This can be very useful for debugging.||0|
If set to a true value such as "1", a log of low-level
protocol packets is saved. The log can be retrieved by reading
option APDU. Setting saveAPDU always has the side effect of
resetting the currently saved log. This setting is
write-only. If read, NULL will be returned.
It is only recognized in
Returns the log of protocol packets. Will be empty if logging
is not enabled (see saveAPDU above). This setting is
read-only. It is only recognized if used
in call to |
If given and non-empty,
will be configured for the connection.
This option is inspected by ZOOM when a connection is established.
If the ||none|
If given and non-empty,
a redis context will be created
for the connection.
This option is inspected by ZOOM when a connection is established.
If the ||none|
If either option
is set, then
Character Set and Language Negotiation is in effect.
int ZOOM_connection_error(ZOOM_connection c, const char **cp, const char **addinfo); int ZOOM_connection_error_x(ZOOM_connection c, const char **cp, const char **addinfo, const char **dset);
ZOOM_connection_error checks for
errors for the last operation(s) performed. The function returns
zero if no errors occurred; non-zero otherwise indicating the error.
holds messages for the error and additional-info if passed as
ZOOM_connection_error_x is an extended version
ZOOM_connection_error that is capable of
returning name of diagnostic set in
ZOOM_connection_connect establishes a TCP/IP
connection and sends an Initialize Request to the target if
possible. In addition, the calls wait for an Initialize Response
from the target and the result is inspected (OK or rejected).
proxy is set then the client will establish
a TCP/IP connection with the peer as specified by the
proxy host and the hostname as part of the
connect calls will be set as part of the Initialize Request.
The proxy server will then "forward" the PDUs transparently
to the target behind the proxy.
For the authentication parameters, if option
is set and both options
pass are unset, then Open style
authentication is used (Version 2/3) in which case the username
is usually followed by a slash, then by a password.
pass is set then idPass authentication
(Version 3 only) is used. If none of the options are set, no
authentication parameters are set as part of the Initialize Request
async is 1, it really means that
all network operations are postponed (and queued) until the
ZOOM_event is invoked. When doing so
it doesn't make sense to check for errors after
ZOOM_connection_new is called since that
operation "connecting - and init" is still incomplete and the
API cannot tell the outcome (yet).
The HTTP based protocols (SRU, SRW, Solr) do not feature an Inititialize Request, so the connection phase merely establishes a TCP/IP connection with the HTTP server.
Most of the ZOOM connection options do not
affect SRU/Solr and they are ignored. However, future versions
of YAZ might honor
put that as part of User-Agent header for HTTP requests.
charset is used in the Content-Type header
of HTTP requests.
authentcationMode specifies how
authentication parameters are encoded for HTTP. The default is
password are encoded by using HTTP basic
authentcationMode is "
user and password are encoded in the URL by parameters
given by the SRU standard.